Journal of Applied Measurement

P.O. Box 1283

Maple Grove, MN 55311


Article abstracts for Volumes 1 to 7 are available in pdf format. Just click on the link below.

Abstracts for Volume 1, 2000

Abstracts for Volume 2, 2001

Abstracts for Volume 3, 2002

Abstracts for Volume 4, 2003

Abstracts for Volume 5, 2004

Abstracts for Volume 6, 2005

Abstracts for Volume 7, 2006

Article abstracts for Volumes 8 to 14 are available in html format. Just click on the link below.

Abstracts for Volume 8, 2007

Abstracts for Volume 9, 2008

Abstracts for Volume 10, 2009

Abstracts for Volume 11, 2010

Abstracts for Volume 12, 2011

Abstracts for Volume 13, 2012

Abstracts for Volume 14, 2013

Abstracts for Volume 15, 2014


Current Volume Article Abstracts


Vol. 16, No. 1 Winter 2015

A Mathematical Theory of Ability Measure Based on Partial Credit Item Responses

Nan L. Kong


This paper defines a measure of examinees’ abilities using additivity, the fundamental property of a measure, based on the partially-credited item responses. The fundamental properties of this newly-defined ability measure are demonstrated using mathematical proofs. This paper also shows that interactive ability and conditional ability are measurable with additivity. Finally, the paper looks at the ability measures associated with subscales and their decompositions.


Differential Item Functioning Analysis by Applying Multiple Comparison Procedures

Paolo Eusebi and Svend Kreiner


Analysis within a Rasch measurement framework aims at development of valid and objective test score. One requirement of both validity and objectivity is that items do not show evidence of differential item functioning (DIF). A number of procedures exist for the assessment of DIF including those based on analysis of contingency tables by Mantel-Haenszel tests and partial gamma coefficients. The aim of this paper is to illustrate Multiple Comparison Procedures (MCP) for analysis of DIF relative to a variable defining a very large number of groups, with an unclear ordering with respect to the DIF effect. We propose a single step procedure controlling the false discovery rate for DIF detection. The procedure applies for both dichotomous and polytomous items. In addition to providing evidence against a hypothesis of no DIF, the procedure also provides information on subset of groups that are homogeneous with respect to the DIF effect. A stepwise MCP procedure for this purpose is also introduced.


Visually Discriminating Upper Case Letters, Lower Case Letters and Numbers

Janet Richmond, Russell F. Waugh, and Deslea Konza


English and number literacy are important for successful learning and testing student literacy and numeracy standards enables early identification and remediation of children who have difficulty. Rasch measures were created with the RUMM2020 computer program for the perceptual constructs of visual discrimination upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers. Thirty items for Visual Discrimination of Upper Case Letters (VDUCL), 36 for Lower Case Letters (VDLCL) and 20 for Visual Discrimination of Numbers (VDN) were presented to 324 Pre-Primary through Year 4 children, aged 4-9 years old. All students attended school in Perth, Western Australia. Eighteen of the initial 30 items for VDUCL, thirty-one of the original 36 items for VDLCL and thirteen of the original 20 items for VDN were used to create linear scales (the others were deleted due to misfit) and these clearly showed which letters and numbers children said were easy and which were hard.


Testing the Multidimensionality of the Inventory of School Motivation in a Dutch Student Sample

Hanke Korpershoek, Kun Xu, Magdalena Mo Ching Mok, Dennis M. McInerney, and Greetje van der Werf


A factor analytic and a Rasch measurement approach were applied to evaluate the multidimensional nature of the school motivation construct among more than 7,000 Dutch secondary school students. The Inventory of School Motivation (McInerney and Ali, 2006) was used, which intends to measure four motivation dimensions (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic motivation), each comprising of two first-order factors. One unidimensional model and three multidimensional models (4-factor, 8-factor, higher order) were fit to the data. Results of both approaches showed that the multidimensional models validly represented the school motivation among Dutch secondary school pupils, whereas model fit of the unidimensional model was poor. The differences in model fit between the three multidimensional models were small, although a different model was favoured by the two approaches. The need for improvement of some of the items and the need to increase measurement precision of several first-order factors are discussed.


Measuring Teaching Assistants’ Efficacy using the Rasch Model

Zi Yan, Chun Wai Lum, Rick Tze Leung Lui, Steven Sing Wa Chu, and, Ming Lui


Teaching assistants (TAs) play an influential role in primary and secondary schools. But there is an absence in literature about the TA’s efficacy, and to date no instrument is available for measuring TA’s efficacy. The present study aims to develop and validate a scale (Teaching Assistant Efficacy Scale, TAES) for measuring TA’s efficacy on identified capabilities. A total of 531 teaching assistants from Hong Kong schools participated in the survey. The multidimensional Rasch model was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that a 5-dimension structure of TA’s efficacy was supported. The final 30-item version of TAES assesses TA’s efficacy on learning support, teaching support, behaviour management, cooperation, and administrative support. The Rasch reliabilities for all five dimensions were around 0.90. The 6-category response structure worked well for the scale. Further research was recommended to validate and test the robustness of the TAES both in Hong Kong and elsewhere.


Detecting Measurement Disturbance Effects: The Graphical Display Of Item Characteristics

Randall E. Schumacker


Traditional identification of misfitting items in Rasch measurement models have interpreted the Infit and Outfit z standardized statistic. A more recent approach made possible by Winsteps is to specify “group = 0” in the control file and subsequently view the item characteristic curve for each item against the true probability curve. The graphical display reveals whether an item follows the true probability curve or deviates substantially, thus indicating measurement disturbance. Probability of item response and logit ability are easily copied into data vectors in R software then graphed. An example control file, output item data, and subsequent preparation of an overlay graph for misfit items are presented using Winsteps and R software. For comparison purposes the data are also analyzed using a multi-dimensional (MD) mapping procedure.


Criteria Weighting with Respect to Institution’s Goals for Faculty Selection

Sheu Hua Chen, Yen Ting Chen, and Hong Tau Lee


Employers frequently select an employee among numerous candidates. They have to evaluate these candidates by multiple criteria that raise the problem of how to determinate the relative importance of these criteria. Traditionally, when engaging a new employee, the employer will develop a set of criteria and their associate weightings according with its institution’s goals. However, the weight setting also reflects the priority of goals. It is frequently ignored. That is to say, it is necessary to recheck whether the weighting set reflects the institution’s goals’ priority appropriately. In this research, we proposed a mechanism that gives the chance to review the criteria weighting to see if it is adequately satisfies its institution’s actual goals. This double-check procedure can further help the employer select appropriate personnel for his or her institution.


Gendered Language Attitudes: Exploring Language as a Gendered Construct using Rasch Measurement Theory

Kris A. Knisely and Stefanie A. Wind


Gendered language attitudes (GLAs) are gender-based perceptions of language varieties based on connections between gender-related and linguistic characteristics of individuals, including the perception of language varieties as possessing degrees of masculinity and femininity. This study combines substantive theory about language learning and gender with a model based on Rasch measurement theory to explore the psychometric properties of a new measure of GLAs. Findings suggest that GLAs is a unidimensional construct and that the items used can be used to describe differences among students in terms of the strength of their GLAs. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the teaching and learning of languages.